Non-destructive testing

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Sateco is specialized in non-destructive testing on mountain lift systems for people and goods carriage and special units, through specific technologies and always up-to-date skills.

The Magneto-Inductive Technique (MIT) for testing of metal wire ropes is a non-destructive testing method which can be applied to most operating wire ropes, both in public and private transportation systems, and in yard and industrial plants. This technique consists in sliding the metal rope through a magneto-inductive equipment generating a field inside it. The equipment is connected to a recorder, which records the magnetic flow passing through the rope itself. Any defect (usually expressed as a decrease in the rope section, as they search for wires of broken strands, crushing, local breaks, etc.) causes a local and total variation of the originally induced field. As for acquisition, if there is an abnormal signal (peak) due to a defect, it is possible to qualitatively compare the amplitude with a reference signal generated by test wires (placed on a length of the rope to simulate an increase of the section).

The Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI) is a kind of non-destructive testing suitable for all ferromagnetic materials. The Magnetic Particle Inspection is based on the analysis of magnetic field variations which occur in case of surface or sub-surface defects. During the magnetic particle inspection (MPI), the component to be tested is magnetized by a magnetic field and on its surface some magnetic particles are applied; any cracks or defects inside the field cause a deviation in the flow lines and, accordingly, in magnetic particles, which group and create a discontinuity. Any signs or defects can be identified by natural (in case of technique with black magnetic particles on white background) or artificial (in case of fluorescent particles) light. Normative references for the magnetic particle inspection are:

  • UNI EN 10228-1: Non-destructive testing of steel forgings – Magnetic particle inspection
  • UNI EN 17638: Non-destructive testing of welds – Magnetic particle testing
  • UNI EN 23378: Non-destructive testing of welds – Acceptance levels
  • UNI EN ISO 3059: Non-destructive testing – Penetrant testing and magnetic particle testing – Viewing conditions
  • UNI EN ISO 9934-1: Non-destructive testing – Magnetic particle testing – General principles
  • UNI EN ISO 9934-2: Non-destructive testing — Magnetic particle testing – Detection media
  • UNI EN ISO 9934-3: Non-destructive testing — Magnetic particle testing – Equipment

The Penetrant Testing (PT) can be performed on any type of non-porous material. The penetrant testing is carried out by letting a red fluid substance at low tension penetrate by capillarity into surface discontinuities of the material to be tested. After a sufficient time frame, the fluid is removed using water, having a higher surface tension, which is not able to remove the fluid from material slits. After the washing, the red fluid is extracted using a developer which highlights the capillary rise of the fluid. So, clearly visible red areas will appear in damaged areas. It is also possible to use fluorescent fluids, which do not need a detector, but they require testing by UV light. Normative references for the penetrant testing are:

  • UNI EN ISO 17635: Non-destructive testing of welds -Test with penetrating fluids – General rules for metallic materials
  • UNI EN ISO 23277: Non-destructive testing of welds – Penetrant testing – Acceptance levels
  • UNI EN ISO 3059: Non-destructive testing of welds – Penetrant testing -Viewing conditions
  • UNI EN 10228-2: Non-destructive testing of steel forgings – Penetrant testing

The ultrasonic testing (UT) is based on the propagation of elastic waves through the object to be examined and on monitoring of transmitted signal (Transmission technique) or of reflected signal from any surface or discontinuity (Reflection technique). Ultrasounds are, therefore, mechanical-type elastic waves transmitted into solid bodies (or in fluids by dipping techniques) to produce elastic oscillations around the equilibrium position in their molecules. Non-destructive ultrasonic testing is applicable for the inspection of welds and mechanical components (shafts, axles, pins) and are useful to detect the presence of inclusions in rolled products; they are also used for thickness measurements. The ultrasonic method is performed on industrial structures and on public and private transportation systems. Normative references for the ultrasonic testing are:

  • UNI EN 10228-3: Non-destructive testing of steel forgings – Ultrasonic testing of ferritic or martensitic steel forgings
  • UNI EN 10228-4: Non-destructive testing of steel forgings – Ultrasonic testing of austenitic and austenitic-ferritic stainless-steel forgings
  • UNI EN 583-1: Non-destructive testing – Ultrasonic examination – General principles
  • UNI EN 583-4: Non-destructive testing – Ultrasonic examination – Examination for discontinuities perpendicular to the surface
  • UNI EN 583-5: Non-destructive testing – Ultrasonic examination – Characterization and sizing of discontinuities.
  • UNI EN ISO 11666: Non-destructive testing of welds – Ultrasonic testing – Acceptance levels
  • UNI EN ISO 17640: Non-destructive testing of welds – Ultrasonic testing – Techniques, testing levels, and assessment
  • UNI EN ISO 23279: Non-destructive testing of welds – Ultrasonic testing – Characterization of discontinuities in welds
  • UNI EN 10160: Ultrasonic testing of steel flat product of thickness equal or greater than 6 mm (reflection method)
  • UNI EN 14127: Non-destructive testing – Ultrasonic thickness measurement

The visual testing (VT) is a non-destructive testing method which can be performed to the naked eye or with the help of lens or endoscopes. The visual testing needs a good experience in the field and allows to find the areas to be inspected by other testing methods. Direct visual testing can be performed remotely, by using a boroscope or a video endoscope, or directly. It is possible to use lens, lamps, and the like. For the visual testing results to be considered reliable, the test must be performed at 60 cm and lighting must be included between 150 and 600 lux. Normative references for the visual testing are:

  • UNI EN 13018: Non-destructive testing – Visual testing – General principles
  • UNI EN ISO 5817: Welding – Fusion-welded joints in steel, nickel, titanium and their alloys (beam welding excluded) – Quality levels for imperfections

 

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